FANDOM


Sitemap

--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

Bio-Electronics

--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---


Another Kind of "Bio" Shock - An Early/Earlier Computer Revolution :

Bio-Electronics ...

Its still not gonna be your 'smartphones' and 'tablets', but even simple computer smarts/logic can solve problems that hampered certain mechanisms/processes (like simple Automation), or could replace far more complicated mechanical solutions (and thus can lower costs and make some things cheaper/easier/more-possible to produce).

That includes basic devices we have today (which were Science Fiction in the 50s (even 60s)) which USE miniature Computers/Control-logic/Transistors for various appliances and tools (miniature TVs, TV Cameras, TV Monitors, digitized data, primitive computer terminals, complex automatic controls, etc ...). Rapture existed back when Vacuum Tubes were STILL largely the mainstay of the real world's electronics.

Bio-Electronic Idea Summary :

The Possibility - nerve cells do similar logic operations to tubes/transistors/ICs. ADAM can genetically manipulate tissue/cells, so a result : organic computer components (and miniaturized far from what was available 1940s - 50s (even in the 60s)). Artificial Intelligence requires a huge amount of processing ability, so miniaturization, mass production (masses of circuitry required for the complexity needed ...) would move computers towards that goal. Real (living) nerve tissue can self-organize (in useful ways), so that is another component for achieving the computing scale needed for 'The Thinker' (( Even if it was just a simulation of intelligence -- AND not being anything close to sapience -- which BTW, WE 60 years later still have not gotten anywhere close to, in our Real World. ))

You can still mix in more conventional technologies (like copper wires and transistors) to interface outside of this 'organic computer', and many things being controlled can still employ vacuum tubes and relays.

--- --- --- --- ---

A Major Bio-Electronocs Breakthrough Came :

Electron Microscopes (used in medical research) were in use (we saw them repeatedly in the Solo games) for various ADAM related research. Electron Microscopes employ a vacuum to contain the viewed subject, allowing scanning by an electron beam.

Vacuum is a Semi-Conductor (as used in real Vacuum Tube Electronics). Similar development had been started 100 years ago with glass Vacuum Tubes.

Thus an important element for the Bio-Electronic revolution in Rapture was the discovery of a Semi-Conducting effect seen on some ADAM test specimens (observed while IN an Electron Microscope). The potential electronic use was realized by McClendon, who was at the time attempting to improve miniaturization of his Electronic products (transistors had been invented/produced on The Surface by that time, but were large, temperamental and expensive).

McClendon's further research/development discovered that living nerve cells, if treated/modified properly, could act as Electronic Diodes and Transistors, Logic Gates -- and that this could be done at a VERY small scale. Additionally, they could be GROWN and guided into useful circuit patterns which each normally took many dozens of discrete (individual) conventional components.

This technology was what McClendon had been looking for.

--- --- ---

Super Miniature Circuitry Another Way  :

Rapture's Bio-Electronic technology would have to made WITHOUT the use of the advanced (modern) Micro-Photo Lithographic techniques (optical masking done usually with ultra-violet reactive substances to block vapor/sputter depositing/doping/etching) currently used to assemble small micro-electronic circuitry (ICs). Those belong to a VERY complicated massive set of advanced technologies, unlikely to be accomplished in Rapture - they took decades and innumerable engineers working for big companies ($$$) funding their development in the Real World (( This isn't Fantasy Infinite BS, where such things happened with the wave of a hand and on a writer's ignorant whim )).

Rapture could Use to advantage living nerve cells, which have natural self-forming mechanisms (with some clever guidance), to do micro manipulations which were too-crude/impossible otherwise.

--- --- ---

Bio-Electronics - The Use of Biological Mechanisms to Form and Function as Electronic Circuitry :

Typical Nerve Cells (cell bodies around 10 microns (micro meters - 1,000,000th meter) are actually bigger than today's common microelectronic component details (~10 nanometer - 100,000,000th of a meter), but have parts (the small filaments, axon and dendrite connections) of that size and smaller, and function magnitudes more complex than any single transistor/logic gate.

Smaller Nano mechanisms have been theorized (even down to using individual atoms as mechanical lever/lock 'features'), but have problematic construction issues. Whereas biological mechanisms already have much of their functionality already naturally existing (ie- self forming, and redundant structurally) , saving a GREAT DEAL of work (time and money) to develop.

--- --- ---

Neuristor  (bio-transistors) one of those great  Rapture tecnological feats :

The electronic Synapse & Axon - the making of.

Engineering the Technology was greatly short-cutted by utilizing existing biological mechanism (nerve cell structures) instead of creating it from scratch (largely impossible genetically).  ((Just about all genetic engineering done EVEN TODAY is still just recombining existing genetic material))

Made possible by ADAM manipulation of cell genetics to do a process of growing/forming the desired semi-natural nerve structure groupings of cells to do the complex electronic function required for the computing/logic ).    This would be outgrowth of Plasmid research, which modified human body structures (which is much more complicated and harder to do *In Situ*).  It would(should) initially have been based around SeaSlug nerve cells, which got ALOT of investigation in Rapture (as you might expect).

Real Nerve Cells interconnect potentially with hundreds of other cells with very small fibers (features which could only be partially fabricated in the Real World 40 years later).  Inducing natural nerve cells to form grids to facilitate useful logic interconnects was an early achievement (child's-play compared to making Bees (or whatever) come out of your hands).

This technology uses the natural 'learning' nerve feedback,  shaping/training the arrays of cells while 'alive'  to build/shape/force the desired interconnection 'logic' to process binary/analog input patterns in complex ways, which generate expected 'programmed' outputs (thus computing the desired useful logic functions).

Then there would be 'baking' process to fix the function permanently into a post-biological circuit, after 'doping'  conductive chemicals (like metal ions) so the cell structure will function electronically afterwards.   The 'baked' cell functions would then operate using normal transistor/electronic physics in a pattern similar to the original 'trained' living neuro-functioning cell.   Electronic signals going into the circuit are processed and appropriate electronic signals then come out of the circuit.

Finding a way to translate/convert the natural cell into working electronics was the 'trick' and once that was found  all kinds of opportunities became possible.  ADAM modified the cell's genetics to form useful interconnections and train easily, and to then be triggered to start absorbing various chemicals which on 'baking' would make the 'fixed' cell function electronically.   The natural cell's inbuilt/original 'learning' mechanism was not needed, so THAT complexity could be ignored/lost (a simplification).

Attempts to use continuously 'living' cells as components failed  because they continue to change (and even die eventually) and were not easily/practically able to be connected to standard electronic circuits.

Pre-Planar process transistor electronics are used to interface with this hardened Bio-Electronic circuitry.

These circuits usually have alot of excess cells involved because of the fundamental way Neuro-Nets operate. But because they are small (ie- 10 microns,  10000 per square millimeter), all those extras cells don't take up that much space (thousands of functioning 'gates' in the space of a typical discrete transistor of that time).  Each cell also can actually perform the function of hundreds of transistors.

Simple vision functions takes millions of cells and a structuring of different patterns of Neuristors mimicking a real brain's overall structure, with a progression of different functions (optical feature processing, pattern detection/interpretation, situational conclusion).  

-

An important  second generation of development used the production(growing)  of reusable 'molds' which once formed (trained correctly) and 'baked' could be used in a process to stamp out/replicate various circuitry patterns.  This  facilitated faster and easier (cheaper) mass production of certain useful logic patterns  (ex- computer memory which utilized millions of replications of the same simple circuit)

(ex- "R-34 Wire Cluster" which on having a simple Neurister feed back mechanism added became 9000% more reliable).

-

Brain Boost (ADAM Tonic) greatly accelerated the development of this technology (one of those meta level collaboration accelerations of technology).   It took just a few Manic researchers, who couldn't sleep, who delved into all kinds of odd things (some of which turned up some astounding Tech).    Hmm, Brain Boost (or a derivative) could  help accelerate the learning process employed to 'Train' the Neurister nerve cells,  Later, the resulting Computer Tech sped up cell training by magnitudes -- lowering costs to develop this technology for Consumer Products (the Business of Rapture is Business  -- after all).   Voila (behold!), even more money for further tech developments, and enabling more complex uses ...

The Thinker's system employed third generation neuro-electronics and the independent work with N-Gram Big Daddy Conditioning combined to create that Artificial Intelligence.      (NOTE- Porters memories of his wife 'made her' real to him, so that N-Grams recorded/taken from HIM were utilized to create that artificial personality  (in effect he saw what he remembered).

--

Interesting sidebar - use of human tissues in this Research - Ethics in Rapture - cutting open the brains of "Experimental Subjects" and extracting tissues to be use for this electronic stuff (to make money - not just to 'save lives', as much Medical research purports to do).    As in Persephone - if you sign the Waiver and sign up for the 'Experimental' Program (and it spells out reasonably honestly whats involved and what the risks are).   (Alot of the BioShock Players probably don't know that this was actually common practice in the US in the 40s and 50s - use of prison/jail inmates for various experimentation).

But then, alot of the research was based on the less 'legally entwined'  SeaSlug tissues which were simpler and more robust than human tissues.

---

Idea - if the Thinker could mimic Porter then have it mimic Ryan  (in a "Twist" Ryan arranges it to make believe he's alive - but is really the Thinker - but then (wheels within wheels) actually HE IS still alive   (not great, but better than the stupid/lame/illogical suicide 'twist' we got).

--- --- ---



Braintissue

Brain Neuron interconnections


--- --- ---

Small on the Inside - Circuitry :

The Bio-Electronic circuits have the same problem that modern computers have -- inside, within their micro/dinky 'integrated' circuitry, they can do things very fast, but they then have to interface outwards to less sophisticated technologies, which are not as fast and generally are very large and clumsy. SO the problem is : to try to do as MUCH as possible while INSIDE the Bio-Electronics before having to transition outward ( thus with less constant in/out data flow to slow things down, and passing of control instructions inward ).

A similar advantage is that the size of the circuitry means that very small currents and voltages are invoved, which then has to transition (amplify) to much higher currents and voltages externally to work/interact with other electrical machinery.

This also means that the Bio-Electronic circuitry is susceptible to electromagnetic interference and to damage from overcurrents, so that the circuitry needs adequate protections in its various use environments.

--- --- ---

Good as Gold :

"One gold coin can provide enough gold wire/thread for thousands of bio-electronic circuits" - McClendon

Note To Players - Those corpses you bring back for 'salvage' - you might want to have a pair of pliars handy for any gold teeth ...

Small very thin wires (out of pure gold) can be created -- using a metalworking technology (real world) thousands of years old.

Handy in making Vacuum Tubes also (and gold is used in plating for all kinds of electrical equipment).

Would Rapture Dollars be gold ? The coins get pretty small even when gold was $35 an ounce (denominations had been $2.50, $5, $10 & $20 Dollar in the 30s, when it was ~$20 and ounce).

--- --- ---

Glass - A Well Understood Insulator Material to be Utilized for Electronics :

Miniature Glass fabrication was an important part of Rapture's Bio-Electronic technology.

First to produce thin flat glass (something like microscope slide glass) used as the 'board' material for Bio-Electronic circuits (it needed to be a good insulator). The shaped glass is smoothed/polished.

Melted dimples and etched/scratched lines are added on the glass (use to contain/support the various circuit materials). Various materials Biological and mineral are deposited in these gaps.

Scraping the glass flat in final stages, leave only the indented areas filled and the surface flat enough for 2 surfaces to be joined with no significant gap (and to bring materials on each surface together for circuit continuity).

Being able to do these processes repeatedly/consistently for some more complex circuits, which had to be built up in stages and then scraped/polished/cleaned for the next build stage (The 'training' stages have temporary materials added to facilitate them, and these get removed afterwards).

In some cases, vapor depositing of conductive metals (over the whole surface) would be used which would fill the space indented in the glass, and then on polishing leave the metal ONLY in the indents (making circuit traces). Glass of course beings a very good insulator as a substrata for the electrical circuits being built.

The techniques use could be automated (not done manually), which would allow production prices/difficulties to be lowered/lessened significantly.

-

The idea of Programmable Logic (used in so many devices these days) assists in creating complex control circuitry which would be far more difficult (and expensive) if done wholly using discrete analog or mechanical circuitry. You still need conventional (era) electronics (transistor or tube and relays) for the needed power actuators for various devices (motors/solenoids/pumps etc) and to generate/feed IN the sensor data the circuitry's functioning requires.

--- --- ---

Micro Details :

Early Bio-Electronic glass substrata had been stamped to hold the 'biological material' within a well pre-designed pattern (similar technology for fine details were already being done as small - like ordinary Phonograph Record grooves being stamped in plastic with as many as 9 grooves per millimeter ...) Useful when the circuits design called for a regular patterns (grids/arrays). Micro-Pantograph mechanisms can be used to 'carve' the master Stamp Molds (in metal) for such patterned circuitry (used then to stamp glass). Precisely photo etching numerous circuits that way would be far too costly for the uses they would be put to (archaic modern computers requiring million of transistors - current ones BILLIONS).

--- --- ---

An Interesting *TODAY* (REAL WORLD) Technology :

Using 3D Printers to lay out patterns of cultured nerve cells to rebuilt damage to " sensory and motor functions of complex nerves " (to be embedded surgically into patients). Previously I had heard talk of using similar 'printing' technology to assist in regenerating Liver tissue (the Liver is a highly self regenerative organ) and for culturing skin (extremely important for treating burn victims).

This adds ideas for medical applications using ADAM's properties (Medical uses most probably were the very first ADAM research done in Rapture before the *Firing Fireballs Out Of Arseholes* stuff happened).

XY Plotter type machines have been around since the 50s, so that technology could potentially be allowed in Rapture. Scaled down with a micro-pantograph it might also be usable for some of the fine inscribing work/cell depositing used to make the Bio-Electronics.

--- --- ---

Bio-Mineralization Process :

Bio-Mineralization is the formation of inorganic materials in a biological environment, as it is found in the development of bones, teeth and shells. Certain bio-minerals are also often associated with "pathogeneses" of tissues.

Various Plasmids and Tonic can make use of this existing natural process to modify the human body to support the functions needed for the Plasmid/Tonic's abilities (usually takes alot more than that 'game' insta-change type modification - which the MMORPG won't have). Hence, there would be less in-game (MMORPG) 'instant' changes by 'Tonics' and 'Plasmids', and more realistic application (done carefully by professionals and careful process) over sufficient time for tissues to carry out their changes.

Employing a process to cause Bio-Mineralization would ALSO be fundamental in creating stable, rugged circuitry from living tissues. Conversion to a chemically inert form with desired electrical properties and patterns would be the goal.

Formations of 'plastic' (repeating chained molecules) and patterned crystalline structure (utilizing biological minerals) are natural processes. Manipulations to induce the desired modification at least is possible (a big part of the complexity/difficulty would be placing the organic markers such mechanism use to guide their operation and proper formation).

--- --- ---

Making Bio-Mineralization Technology (The Great Leap) :

Use is made of an existing biological mechanism, where an organisms cells build mineral structures (example - building bone tissue by Osteoblasts). Being an existing biological mechanism, it thus doesn't have to be created (genetically) from scratch (BTW it would be largely impossible to reproduce such a complex biological result originally as done by trial-and-error via Evolution over millions of years of mutations of millions of organisms to form the required working genetic codes). But genetic manipulation could be created by applying/modifying existing (natural) genetic patterns.

The Bio-Electronic circuitry used in Rapture would use this process in converting living tissue into inorganic materials, which have better durability and stable properties (conductance, semi-conduction and insulation). Various minerals with the appropriate properties could be absorbed by cells and placed into crystalline and polymorphic formations required for particular electrical/electronic operation (both inside and external to the cell).

A simple important electronic component like a Diode (used to force electrical currents to travel only one direction along a conductor path) is achieved by intermixing two additional elements into the crystal structure of two adjacent regions of the base material (such as the semiconductor silicon). Transistors are formed from three such adjacent 'regions'. Metallic elements can be organically manipulated and made to form strong-conductors/wires to transmit signals across a cell.

--- --- ---

Redundant Structure of the Bio-Electronic Mechanism :

Living tissue, because individual cells can die, usually have their function/logic done via the cooperation of multiple cells doing the same operation. The signals of several cells can be averaged together to carry out the function (and while alive, tissue can have other cells take the place of the ones lost - If a particular cell dies, the others adjust to continue the intended function). This redundancy mechanism/behavior can be utilized in a technology where it is hard to manipulate single cells directly (ie- try picking ONE cell up and placing it into a 'circuit' ...). A group of cells though can be manipulated, and if of the right properties and are 'trained' in the same function, and can respond together the same way. Damage which potentially can happen while converting the living cells into inorganic circuitry may destroy/disrupt a few cells, but the rest could then continue to function properly. Finding how much redundancy is sufficient would part of the circuitry design process.

Consider that a 1 square millimeter area with a depth of one tenth of that can easily contain 10000 nerve cells. Individual functions with significant redundant could take only 100 cells. That is a significant size improvement for circuitry in Rapture's time, when transistors (and other components) were good fractions of an inch in all dimensions.

The process used to 'grow' the complex circuitry (including the irregular logic needed for certain functions) can also be worked to force corrections while the circuitry is being formed -- to be patched/adjusted while it is still alive and growing (while it is in a modifiable form -- A natural process of living Nerve cells).

With certain simpler, regularly structured (but very numerous) circuits (like a memory bank, where the simple basic 'bit' circuit is replicated many thousands of times in a grid), some (likely) defects can be worked around via programming -- by using a customizing compiler to build around known defects existing in that one circuit (ie- a few bad memory addresses, just like they do in the Real (modern) World for those long-underway space probes (which were subject to Space's harsh/destructive radiation -- potentially damaging the computer's memory electronics.)

Boorrrring ... (A point though is : Clever Solutions are nothing new to overcome difficulties and constraints.)

--- --- ---

What is the State of Bio-Electronic Technology in New Rapture ?  :

As might be expected, with things disrupted/interrupted by The Chaos following the 'Civil War', alot of the things once produced in Rapture no longer are. Production of New Electronics would be one of the things disrupted.

Minervas Den (and its annexes) were largely intact, with living (and still not all insane) personnel and still having working production equipment, and the various designs/plans archived. Advanced circuitry was used for 'The Thinker' and by McClendon's robots. With that facility having been isolation, the capacity to produce much of the technology may have survived.

Various Player Activities :

  • Salvaging reusable components and modules (and bits of wire, electrical/electronic parts and other things) to supplant what few things can still be made.
  • Repairing some of the old production machines/tools in Minervas Den (replacements/repairs, maintenance).
  • Finding materials (like gold) needed for new production/repairs (Ick. Fillings salvaged from corpses - bet you never thought you'd be pulling teeth with pliers from skulls in a game, did you ? Then again, that was one of the activities in Hensen's Muppet MMORPG wasn't it ??).
  • Use of the facility to Repair parts/components/assemblies (developing your Fabrication Skills)
  • Research and recovery of technological information (searching out/recovering data/knowledge/plans)
  • Recovery of various Program archives and manuals.
  • Maintaining various automatic systems still operating throughout Rapture, or switching them over to manual control when they fail. (Repairs at the location where the critical equipment is, and their connecing wires/conduits).
  • Find and use Libraries containing Surface Information covering similar subjects
  • Contacts arranged with "The Surface" to get things (tools/materials/knowledge) no longer available in Rapture (The Ryan Loyalist faction still had contacts and various Smugglers can still obtains some things for the right price).
  • Recovery of some of the old NPC experts still alive (and your likely having to convince them to cooperate).
  • Try your hand at programming. Some skill may be required.

--- --- ---

Micro Printing Processes for Bio-Electronics :

Though much larger detail than today's results of micro-lithography in making our Integrated Circuits (which is down to Nano-Meters - millionths of milli-meters), the size of printed details allowing a fraction of a millimeter is possible with available (1940s) printing/etching technology in Rapture (which could be further refined/developed/specialized). This would be useful in laying out the (to us) quite small physicla patterns in materials required for Bio-Electronic circuitry.

"Printing" - Basic shapes of layers of materials laid down in fixed thin patterns, sometimes layered (building) ontop of other patterns (done with sufficient alignment accuracy to 'match up' the layers).

Deposited materials (to some places and not others) :

  • Chemicals which stimulate various cells to adhere at a position and grow into their desired form
  • Metal-based Conductors, which act for signal transmissions in the finished circuits (or external bonding sites with mechanical conductors like thin gold wire).
  • Insulators, laid down to block/guide electrical activity, built up structures (dams) which can be used to contain other applied materials (impressed wells where a group of squee-geed-on nerve cells cultures can accumulate to eventually self-organize and connect into th einorganic circuitry). The base Glass substrata is an Insulator.
  • Masking, temporary materials deposited to facilitate etching/reactive conversion processes and chemical treatments (protecting some spots and leaving others open to be etched/chemically modified.)

All of this 'printing' is much larger/cruder than what was done (even) decades ago when (Real World) Micro Electronics technology advanced. It would be still far smaller than the bulky electronics in Rapture's time era (tubes/early transistors, cruse circuit boards). Alot of this 'Printing' is to serve as the physical receptacles and to lay out electrical connections/interconnections of the Bio-Electronics components, which CAN do alot in a very small space. Those components have to be organized, and formed/guided, and connected, to build the more complicated circuitry (ie- what needed for "The Thinker's" simulated Intelligence, or for sensor signal processing and remote controlling of security devices the game shows).

--- --- ---

Microglia - Support Cells

Microglia promote learning-dependent synapse formation through a brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

(Plain English : Part of the cell mechanism that allows brain cells to learn).

So these would be one of the 'factors' introduced in the guiding Phases of the growth-building of Bio-Electronic applied cells. The Cells natural function when placed upon an organized structure and with various signal patterns applied would be used to form the desired electronic logic.


--- --- ---

Idea for A Bio-Electronic Manufacturing Mechanism :

For the (glass) Substrata Etching used to form 'circuitry' guides for the living nerve tissue pattern's growth phase.

Etch-a-Sketch type mechanism - a 2 axis rotating indexing knobs working jackscrews using rotary relays, controlled by a 'card' driven indexing mechanism (like a Jacquard Loom (a 200+ year old control technology - maybe later would be computer-tape controlled). Can also be used to 'drill' dimples/depressions in the flat surface where organic tissue is later paced.

'Pantograph' arm mechanism that scales the primary (driving) movement down to draw sub-millimeter features (using a Diamond or Carborundum tipped tool, etching the glass substrate). The line and 90 degree turn movements of an Etch-a-Sketch (toy) are reminiscent of many early circuit board formats.

Allows mass production manufacturing, when used for line etching (along with multi tooth 'comb' pattern cutters for parallel lines, and hot pattern stamping, and silkscreen masked depositing of materials).

Diamond point tool (nice - there might be a Bounty for Diamond jewelry you find out in the wilds of Rapture) is used (becaus eof its hardness) to scratch glass (which will then need annealing later to moderate/smooth the weak fracture points on the thin glass).

--- --- ---

Possible Organic Triggers for Bio-Electronic Circuitry Conversion and Training Processes :

A primary need for Bio-Electronic manufacturing is a complex sequence of precisely tailored cell interactions, sequentially/phase-controlled in the process to affect the cell structural formations.

It requires external signals which can be used on Genetically-altered cells (used in the Bio-Electronic and other technologies). This is done via the Cell's basic genetic (natural mechanism), or via a "Plasmid" (some extra/added/modified genetic material introduced to a cell to manipulate its behavior). Modified genetics would allow several cell-modification Phases to meet what is required for whatever needs to be accomplished.

Various environmental stimulations would be used to trigger the different phases of the genes/mechanisms existing within the living nerve cells :

  • Weak electrical potential on electrodes or regions of the sub-stratum the cell sits on - to stimulate a reaction.
  • Chemicals introduced (enzymes, proteins, neuro-transmitters, genetic triggers, etc ...)
  • Temperature level (accelerating certain chemical reactions, and sometimes slowing by lowering temperature)
  • Light Wavelengths - activating specific genetically produced chemical reactions
  • HyperFrequency module stimulation (microwave vibration harmonics keyed to specific bio-molecules)
  • Electro-magnetic polarization (electro-magnetic vibrations tuned for certain molecules)

As mentioned previously, a complementary Bioluminescent output from the cells could be engineered to activate as part of different phased modification steps, giving feedback indicators to an external process control mechanism (when bits get glowey then you know you've done enough of whatever to achieve activation ...).

--- --- ---

Living Cell Neural Computation :

Living Nerve Neurons and their support cells (Neuroglia) would be laid down/deposited in thin layers and induced to adapt to patterns of signals from an array of small input electrodes, use a learned/trained signal processing pattern, and then connected to feed into a set of output electrodes. These would supply expected (programmed output) response signals to the inputs. The cell's natural learning/self-correcting mechanism would be employed using repeated pattern stimulations (a training set) after which the cells are genetically Triggered to cease adapting. The goal is to have the cells recognize a generalized pattern from the given input data, and then generate the correct outputs to process sensor data, coordinate some machinery, or somesuch 'logic'.

After one layer set of cells is trained and is'frozen', an insulating separation layer is deposited and then another thin neuron-cell layer is deposited, to be subjected to a different set of input patterns, and be induced to respond correctly to that different logic. A whole mass of cells (ie- 100+ layers) then are to function as one unit, all processing the same set of inputs, but with each layer responding with a correct answer/response when appropriate. Those thin layer, each not much more than a few cells thick, would be assembled within a 1 inch square area and comprise something like 1 million neuron cells, which allows for significant interconnection redundancy, facilitating the many signal paths required for the desired Logic to be formed and operate.

The cells, using their natural electro-chemical mechanisms (ion concentration, passing an electrical signal potential on to the next cell), can only process in signal waves in cycle times of about 100th of a second, but because they can work massively in Parallel, they can actually do a great deal of data processing work simultaneously.

The resulting logic functions formed out of the cells can be modally divided up with specific inputs acting as subset-enabling signals (mode controls), as well as a large number of situational pattern inputs, all being used to do mass data processing on several hundred inputs (example- optical/vision cognition/interpretation, or obstacle avoidance for movement).

Gold electrodes used in this circuitry are thin, finer than human hairs, and would be coated with an insulator which the cells break down to make a signal connection (you can't allow current simply flowing freely through the liquid medium the cells live in). A weak positive signal (for inputs) or negative (marking outputs) or a neutral charge initially put on the electrodes would be used to guide the growth of the signal processing logic and formation of the cell dendrites and axons. Some Signal-carrying cells are mixed into the layers and are there to internally carry signals across the entire width of the cell matrix (max approx 1 inch square).

Issue - Slow Speed of natural cells - which 'fire' less than a hundred times a seconds (often just 'tens per second) -- the offset of this is the ENTIRE thing runs in parallel and with sufficient intertwined logic it could dwarf the processing of an electronic computer whose linearly-run instruction logic runs 10000X faster) -- again this would be used for very specific types of complex logic (like pattern matching), versus the basic computational arithmetic and if-then programming of more conventional computers.

Issue - The cells are living and have to be maintained (kept alive) in an organic way. During their 'lifetime', the living nerve cells in the mechanism are 'fed' by a plasma fluid containing oxygen and nutrients to sustained them. A substantial portion of the cells included are of types which act to support the functioning nerve neuron cells (which perform the actual logic operations).

Issue - Circuitry Lifespan - the cell tissue eventually degrades and unless 'repaired' (T-Cell applications  ??) it ceases to function, or worse malfunctions. This living circuitry then is really only applicable to uses which have a short expected lifespan after being created. Likewise, small changes (degradation) in the nerve interconnects can cause variable/inconsistent results, which increases as the cells age (goes gradually senile ...). Short term Recording of visual data might be one use which allows for less-than-exact data retention.

-

--- IT IS POSSIBLE (an important idea) that such living circuitry might be used as implants to regulate and control some Plasmid/Tonic operations - adding a 'smart' component to facilitate things of greater complexity, when purely gene-based solutions are insufficient.

Also some life-extending genetic changes might be possible to help extend this product type's lifespan (which in lacking, means you might have alot of broken/malfunctioning machines by the time of the MMORPG games setting).

-

This Live-Cell system might possibly be done with a step-wise 'static-alization' process (killing the cells which are converted to inorganic electronics, layer by layer as each is built) to create the final component. This would be a mechanism for producing complex 'irregular' logic that many AI applications require. The inorganic circuitry has the potential of being driven hundreds of times faster than the original living tissue, and is has a slower degradation rate than living tissue.

Patching : Extra steps are required to thermally/chemically 'bake' the cell tissue and cannot be done without direct access to the cell layer to apply the additional chemicals and mutation triggers required for the conversion. Also, frequently the cell "Learning" fails (doesn't function as required) and with the top layer still accessible - to be cleaned and restarted/rebuilt without having to discard the entire unit (which may have several hundred 'layers' built up already).

--- --- ---

Componentized Complexity :

Early CPUs (Real World Central Processing Units) spanned entire large racks of circuitry. The miniaturization was developed decades later to put whole circuits on chips (and a complete computer on one chip even later) did not yet exist (AND WE SHOULD NOT EXPECT IT TO IN THE MMORPG time period).

A Rapture Bio-Electronic CPU would be spread across multiple substrate layers, interconnected via substrate edge spanning wires, with different functions present on various layers : register memory, input/output channels and buffers, different arithmetic units (Adder/Multiplier/Divider/Shifter), instruction decode logic (which controls all the others). If the unit was to be self-contained (like a controller module), then many RAM and ROM layers would be included.

An advantage of having these on separate substrate layers was that they could be manufactured separately, and the defective ones eliminated before their assembly - versus a more complicated one-piece/fewer-piece candidate computer having to be scrapped whenever it tested-out as a failure/defective. Potentially later malfunctions/repairs with the layers being disassembled and a replacement inserted (or the good layers reused).

--- --- ---

A Different Circuitry - (Continuing) Living Nerve Tissue Used for Computer Bio-Electronics :

Living tissue, Short term memory, Self Organizing, Use of Stem Cell mechanism for recording and self-adjustment (and wiping to rerecord). Researchers would have investigated Ideas at least for attempted tech ... (unfortunately turning it into something useful is the problem).

Growing Your Own Brain (Sort Of) :

Training animals and then cutting their brains out isn't really practical. Assuming you can keep it alive, they just work the same as for the animal, except now piecemeal/separated from the specific external sensory inputs (which are too complex to attach the artificial equivalents of - so no good functionally any more). You still might make use of various specialized tissues, but that's not a 'brain' - just a functional sub-tissue component. And you would have to directly manipulate that 'part' of tissue "in Vitro" (outside its normal biological context) to make use it . Training would have to be done to grow/form/shape its logic functionality using the desired input patterns, and stimulate then to interpret and generate the appropriate the outputs. It is time consuming to do for complex interpretation functions even when automated.

An Important Limitation is : That being 'alive', it would eventually deteriorate and its function degenerate with time. So applications needed to be some relatively short term purposes (assuming its even practical to 'grow' in the first place. For living tissue, there also needs to be sufficient support tissue and mechanisms to maintain its physiological living state (overhead like oxygen/food/waste transport - which can be quite complex). A external Flow of nutrients and oxygenation is required to keep the living tissue alive, and a cleaned environment kept free of bacteria.

The Brain Unit's core would need to be a small volume (not much larger than a cubic inch) so that Nerve cells are close enough to interlink sufficiently between themselves, so that their nerve-cell-based logic can interact. Biological Support machinery many time that size would have to exist to sustain it.

Electrical Inputs - hair fine wire electrodes which will inject inputs and take output signals from the living tissue. Grids with a (practical) spacing (something like 1/2 mm), using Gold wire/thread with some kind of bio-friendly coating for cell synapse adherence/interfacing - that is a general insulator except where the nerve fibers (axons and dendrites) make contact (and do conversion between ion-based neuro-chemical potentials amplified into electrical signals).

Thin layers of cells are deposited, forming a matrix to interact with the electrodes. This gets built up in many layers, with each layer passing through a formation phase when it is 'trained'. Then its function is frozen (biochemically inhibiting synapse changes) so that it won't be affected by processing the next added layer (won't change from its already trained state).

What kind of purpose could there be with a fairly limited lifespan (and to justify the overhead expenses and difficulties) ?? Such units might be kept 'frozen' (to prevent deterioration) for long periods before use.

--- --- ---

RSAM (A Programming Technical Innovation)  :

Rapture Sequential Access Method (a basic database management system) :

Locally developed version of an ISAM/VSAM type database programming data structure (important for organizing data on 'Files' and 'Tapes' and across Networks). Its a 'library' of functionality used by other programs. (IBM released their equivalent in 1964 - so we can push it a little bit).

One of those programming projects that a single person could successfully develop (program), which would be an important aspect for such useful things in Rapture, given the idea and the hardware capable of doing the processing (its is something simple enough which could be written in assembly/machine code).

A variant/expansion of this would be used for the 'distributed' nature of the later computer systems (tracking/finding/retieving data across a bunch of computers).

--- --- ---

How to Build a 64Kb(bit) ROM Memory Using Bio-Electronics :

ROM memory (Read Only Memory) is used to hold static programs and static (unchanging) data (and keeps its data when the power is turned off). It is very useful for machines which don't need to be powered-up all the time to retain their programs, and to NOT have to wait to be reprogrammed after being turned on (or which glitch alot and have to be rebooted constantly). Additional Read/Write type memory is required for the temporary data used by the programs (and can be a much smaller amount depending on the functionality required).

One biological method is : To create a number of Neural Net networks, each existing for a single bit output (for 1 bit of the machines 'word' memory width), and then group as many of those separate 'bits' circuits as you need to provide the computers memory 'words' (a set of 'bits' sharing the same address input which simultaneously/in-parallel outputs the bytes/words of data the computer needs). A typical 'word' length for computers was 8bit(byte)/16 bits/24 bits/whatever (many odd sizes in those early days). Each bit's memory values are independent of all the other bits.

64K (65536) = 16 input lines for memory address (to access 2^16 separate values) uses 16 parallel on-off address input values to stimulate the circuitry -- to make an 'address' request for the data stored for that memory address. The actual storage is done by many more thousands of interconnections between the 'memory' cells. When the signals flow through all the cells cumulative output (amplitude) is measured which is then interpreted as and on-off value, which then is converted to a 1 or 0 digital value use by the computer.

Training the ROM values (setting the data into the device) - makes use of nerve cell structure and function to form a circuit, which through neural cell-type interaction returns the correct 1 bit value when the whole circuit is stimulated by any specific address combination (0 - 65535) of those 16 inputs signal lines. (It is something like retrieving a memory in YOUR brain where a pattern of signals causes groups of cells to match a pattern of association, and then results in another pattern being retrieved).

About 90000 nerve cells (each having thousands of connections to other cells) should be sufficient to form the Neural Net for 64K bits of memory. That number of human nerve cells (in Reality) can fit into a drop of water.

Positive and Negative input signals (originating from the 16 memory address inputs - a '1' or '0' signal on the address lines) travels across the bit's circuit (the interconnected nerve cells), act by combining/canceling and summing within layers of nerve cells resolving into a single stable output.

The circuit's "baking" (the process of killing and mineralizing the cells, but keeping the data flow logic patterns) would be done once the circuit has been 'trained' correctly (that is it answers correctly/consistently to each of those 64K different 16 bit patterns of its address signal inputs). The mediocre yield (Pass/Success rate) for this manufacturing process also makes it prudent to make the circuit as simple as possible (ie- for 1 bit, or smaller than 64K if allowable ). The 'baking' conversion also speeds up operation into a purely electrical mechanism, versus the chemical interaction of living nerve cells which generally activate only around 100 times a second (far too slow for any significant calculations).

An advantage of doing the memory 'bits' as separate circuits is that they sometimes train incorrectly in their data pattern (Fail) and must be thrown away. SO each bit would be trained separately (a circuit 1/16th the size), with a test process rejecting and throwing out the defective 'bit' circuits -- thus not wasting the manufacture done for each of the other bits (which would be necessary if they were all in one big circuit). The grouped memory circuit of 8/16/24/32 bits sub-circuits containing the desired data then would be assembled for use as ROM in the computer.

Sometimes, simpler computers need only a little data memory for their program, and at the cost of running slower, can access memory serially, and making use of a single 'bit' circuit. 64Kbits = 8K bytes, which is more than enough for some computer 'controller' automatic program operations. Circuits of 32K bits or 16K bits are easier to make (versus 64k), if that is all the memory size that computer needed.

--- --- ---

Electronic Indicators :

Bioluminescent (based on another area of research) indicator on various bio-modules indicate/annunciate basic functioning (green) and problem states (Ohhh Noooos!! Its flashing RED -- the Bio-circuitry is ANGRY !!!) Probably you won't have to pull vacuum tubes every 15 minutes like those WW2 era computers (the tube quality eventually went up later, and they didn't have to do that much maintenance anymore).

Blinkey Lights are likewise acceptable (The expected public image of a 'computer' is an array of blinkey lights, as well as a tape drive thingee spinning).

All those little lights on the components look so pretty ... (and are EASY game special effects, which make it look more animated - like something is happening, even if they are blinking randomly). Pretty glowey effects can only be a Plus.

--- --- ---

Organic Transistors (Probably Not Hummus-based Though):

  • Organic refers to organic-based chemistry, not necessarily being 'alive'. Most Organic Transistors are polymers/plastics which have semi-conducting properties.
  • These usually operate at higher voltages (~40v - since vacuum tubes often required 100v, this is still an improvement over common 50s electronics).
  • Organic Transistor are usually slower switching than Germanium and Silicon, but beat Tube switching speeds by a long ways.
  •  ?? Potential use of ADAM genetics to manipulate E Coli bacteria to generate required chemicals/crystals/structures (for components less complex than the 'nerve' structured logic), as well as assisting in the methods of generating the viruses use in all the ADAM tech to insert RNA into cells that need to be genetically modified.
  • Existing cells like Nerve tissue act as pattern builders. The final operational circuitry do NOT use the original signaling mechanisms of the living cells (which are based on internal changes of ion electrical potentials and changing permeability of various membranes, and which can 'switch' at most only a few hundred times per second). The Converted circuitry works more like conventional electronics with electrical conductors and switches using semi-conducting effects (and which will switch more in the order of a million times a second). The cells are induced to interconnect and act as components.
  • Interfacing with the 'Nerve' cell circuitry - There needs to be a transition to conventional electronics going out to the 'world'. Amplifiers are needed for the tiny currents the modified nerve cells would switch and signal. These amplifiers would first be be organic 'pre-stages'/boosters, which are then connected to conventional (miniature) electronic Transistors for the external pin interface.

Integrated Circuits still are too far off for Rapture, as of 1958, and I WON'T do a "wave my hand" TVTRopes Linky and say Rapture came up with ICs themselves (having quaint mixed technologies is one of the elements of the BioShock). The Transistor was invented 1947 and the improved 'bipolar junction' transistor by 1950, so those technologies (and the understanding of them) would likely be available within a few years in Rapture (Ryan still had a substantial Surface Organization capable of obtaining information about such things and having them brought to Rapture)..

  • The Living Nerve Cell's genetics would be used/controlled to cause the formation of the required chemicals with the cell (absorbing and placing required chemicals/molecules, building layers/structure) so that when it was heat treated (baked), and the living components were eliminated, the Transistor circuitry would remain and function as required. Note that Cell structures would be hundreds of times smaller than that times discrete transistors and could perform complex operations more like later ICs could (the cells could act as more than just and on-off switch).
  • Doping semiconductors and forming transistors using Active Transport (a cellular biological mechanism) inside growing cells to form/convert the microscale electronics semiconductors required.
  • Genetic switches (RNA/DNA) which control phased behaviors of the cells (there would be several phases involved in forming the required circuitry structures.
  • While the cells are 'growing' they have to be given oxygen and nutrients - often requiring secondary tissues to do/help those functions, which can later be disposed of when the cells are 'baked'.
  • The shaping of the cells and having them interconnect would also be part of the circuits functioning. The growth would be guided externally to interconnect as the logic/function requires, growth triggers and guiding stimulus would be part of the genetic programming of the cells.

--- --- --- --- ---


.

.

WARNING - This Website is    *** NOT SAFE FOR WORK ***

.

RI2

.


*** Warning - Fanboi Head Explosion Zone ***

Contrary Opinions are Being Offered HERE !!!!





Sitemap


Drink *CalciO* And Achieve Greatness !!!


RyanDollar

Money makes Rapture go round...

.

.

.

.

Lighthut

.

.

.

.

.

.

.


.


.


.


.


RaptureX

.

.

.

.

.

Rrrrr2

.

.

.

.

.

Sorethumb

.

.

.

.

.

Logoplate

.

.

.


.


Greatchain

.

.

.

.

.

.

WelcomeToRapture

.

.

.

.

.


Pack

.

.

.

.


AnimatronicRyan

.

.

.

.

.

.


Plasmids

.

.

.

.


GAME OVER


.

.

.

.


Abitcloser

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. .


.


Pointything

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Motifff

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Raptureprint2

.

.

.



WARNING - YES, This whole Wiki is a 'Thought Experiment', and YOU are the Test Subjects !!!!! (So are you Alive or Dead as per this whole Concept ???)


.

.


*WARNING* - This MMORPG contains blood and gore, intense violence, mild sexual themes, strong language and use of alcohol and tobacco.


.

.


*WARNING* - Fanbois May Find The Content of This Wiki Confusing and Distressingly Contradictory to Their Mindsets. Head Explosions May Result


.

.


Liquors sign
Liquors sign
Liquors sign


.


.


.


.


.


.


.



.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.


.

.


.

.

.


.


.

.

.